Cardiac Output, Basic Measurement Principles

Authored by: Leslie A. Geddes

Encyclopedia of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, Second Edition

Print publication date:  May  2008
Online publication date:  May  2008

Print ISBN: 9781420078022
eBook ISBN: 9781498761437
Adobe ISBN:


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It is easy to measure heart rate, but there are very few methods for measuring stroke volume. It is for this reason that recourse is taken to methods that measure the average cardiac output, which is usually expressed in liters per minute. To compare cardiac output in large and small subjects and among different species, two methods of normalization are used.

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