Nb-Based Superconductors

Authored by: Gianluca De Marzi , Luigi Muzzi

Handbook of Superconductivity

Print publication date:  July  2022
Online publication date:  July  2022

Print ISBN: 9781439817322
eBook ISBN: 9780429179181
Adobe ISBN:


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Due to their high melting temperatures, it was not until the 1930s that group 4 and 5 refractory metals were synthesized and measured at low temperature. Superconductivity in Nb was first observed in 1930 at the cryogenics laboratory of W. Meissner in Berlin, a few years before his studies on the effect of magnetic flux expulsion from the interior of a superconductor (Meissner and Ochsenfeld, 1933). Among the superconducting metallic elements, niobium exhibits the record critical temperature, 9.25 K; it is also one of the few elemental superconductors exhibiting type II magnetic properties and some non-negligible transport critical current capability. Owing to these remarkable properties, the earliest attempts to make magnets out of superconducting materials, as envisaged by Heike Kamerlingh-Onnes, were made of pure Nb.

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