Coral Reef: Ecology and Conservation

Authored by: Graham E. Forrester

Coastal and Marine Environments

Print publication date:  June  2020
Online publication date:  May  2020

Print ISBN: 9781138339637
eBook ISBN: 9780429441004
Adobe ISBN:


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Modern coral reefs are found in shallow, nutrient-poor waters within 30° north or south of the equator. Although they underlay only 0.1% of the ocean’s surface area, coral reefs provide food for millions of people, income from tourism, and other critical ecosystem services. Over the past 200 years, coral reefs have been changed dramatically from local human influences such as runoff, pollution, and overfishing. More recently, they have come under severe threat from climate change, which is having immediate effects on corals via rising temperatures and the increasing acidity of seawater.

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