Clay and Ceramics as Sustainable and Green Materials to Remove Methylene Blue from Water: A Critical Analysis

Authored by: Priyanka Sharma , Kushal Qanungo

Handbook of Sustainable Development through Green Engineering and Technology

Print publication date:  September  2022
Online publication date:  September  2022

Print ISBN: 9780367650926
eBook ISBN: 9781003127819
Adobe ISBN:


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Numerous dyes are used to colour various articles used daily, like plastics, textiles, paper, and even food items. Many of these are toxic and may cause cancer. Methylene blue is one of the dyes, which is used in medicine and aquaculture, and as an indicator in redox titrations in chemical analysis on a large scale. Designing new and improved methods of dye elimination from wastewater is an uphill task that industries currently are facing. Particularly challenging are those that involve eco-friendly and sustainable techniques. One such method to remove methylene blue is to use clay and ceramic materials. Clay is abundant, and ceramic materials can easily be prepared by firing clays at different temperatures. An in-depth analysis of various clays and ceramic materials that have been used for methylene blue elimination from aqueous systems is presented. These parameters have been discussed at length in this review in view of the significance of different reaction parameters, like contact time, percentage removal, adsorbent dosage, size of adsorbent, pH, co-ions, temperature, and concentration of methylene blue. The reaction kinetics and mechanism involved in methylene blue adsorption by clays and ceramic material have also been discussed.

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