Transformers

Authored by: Nicholas J. Long

Handbook of Superconductivity

Print publication date:  July  2022
Online publication date:  July  2022

Print ISBN: 9781439817360
eBook ISBN: 9781003139638
Adobe ISBN:

10.1201/9781003139638-37

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Abstract

Transformers are a fundamental building block of any AC power distribution system. They convert voltages up or down for long-range transmission or distribution of power to the industrial or household level. Transformers operate using Faraday's law where the input and output voltage and current levels are linked by electromagnetic induction occurring in primary and secondary conductor windings. These windings typically surround a ferromagnetic core, and are separated by a dielectric insulator. Superconductor transformers follow the same basic configuration as conventional transformers [1]. An example of a three-phase HTS transformer is shown in Figure H1.9.1. Between generation and consumption of power in a power grid there may be as many as 5–10 transformers [2]. The AC currents through the transformers will cause losses in both the magnetic core and the windings. The efficiency of the power distribution system therefore relies on transformers being highly efficient.

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