Effects of Agent Timing on the Human-Agent Team

Authored by: Tyler J. Goodman , Michael E. Miller , Christina F. Rusnock , Jason M. Bindewald

Handbook of Scholarly Publications from the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT), Volume 1, 2000–2020

Print publication date:  December  2022
Online publication date:  December  2022

Print ISBN: 9781032116679
eBook ISBN: 9781003220978
Adobe ISBN:


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As technology becomes more sophisticated, autonomous agents are applied more frequently to improve system performance. The current research employed a five-step method, including modeling, simulation, and human experimentation to explore the effect of an artificial agent’s timing on the performance of a human-agent team within a highly dynamic task environment. Agent timing significantly influenced the role assumed by the human within the team. Further, agent timing changed system performance by approximately 40% within the experimental conditions. Results indicate that an artificial agent’s timing can be varied as a function of the task demands placed upon the human-agent team to maintain an appropriate level of human activity and engagement. Therefore, agent timing may be controlled to adapt autonomy to provide an apparent continuum along which to control human engagement in systems employing human-agent teaming within dynamic environments. Published by Elsevier B.V.

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