Bioremediation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent for Itaconic Acid Production by Aspergillus terreus NRRL 1960 Immobilized in PVA–Alginate–Sulfate Beads

Authored by: Qistina Ahmad Kamal , Nor Azimah Mohd Zain

Sustainable Water Treatment

Print publication date:  April  2017
Online publication date:  April  2017

Print ISBN: 9781138033245
eBook ISBN: 9781315116792
Adobe ISBN:


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Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is recognized as waste that could pollute the environment. This is due to its high value of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solids, total solids, ammoniacal nitrogen, total nitrogen, oil and grease, and color. It is also regarded as unworthy waste. The raw POME contains a very high concentration of proteins, carbohydrates, nitrogenous compounds, lipid, and minerals that lead to the possibilities of reuse as fermentation media. It can be regarded as an unpolished germ. Much effort has been put to explore the potential of POME to create value-added products. In this study, POME was used to produce itaconic acid. Itaconic acid fermentation from glucose and sucrose has a problem of high substrate cost and a very low yield. If utilization of the raw POME to produce itaconic acid is possible, it will reduce the cost to produce useful itaconic acid and thus lower the price. In addition, the immobilization process is predicted to increase the yield of this product since immobilization lowers the growth rate and relatively increases itaconic acid synthesis.

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