Removal of Micro-Pollutants from Wastewater through MBR Technologies: A Case Study on Spent Caustic Wastewater

Authored by: Noor Sabrina Ahmad Mutamim , Zainura Zainon Noor

Sustainable Water Treatment

Print publication date:  April  2017
Online publication date:  April  2017

Print ISBN: 9781138033245
eBook ISBN: 9781315116792
Adobe ISBN:


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The membrane bioreactor (MBR) is not new in wastewater technology. It has been used and explored since the 1960s in solid–liquid separation where the bioreactor acts as a biological treatment process and the membrane is used as the filter in the filtration process. Generally, the biological process shows greater performance than the filtration process (Widjaja et al., 2010). The membrane plays a role in separating solid and liquid whereby the biological process by activated sludge converts the particle waste into flocs before it is separated by the membrane. In the 1990s, submerged MBR was commercialized and it was found that this system had a lower operational cost (Le-Clech et al., 2006) than any other type of MBR.

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