Disaster and Response in Emergency Medical Services

Team Training to the Rescuer*

Authored by: Shirley C. Sonesh , Megan E. Gregory , Ashley M. Hughes , Eduardo Salas

Human Factors and Ergonomics of Prehospital Emergency Care

Print publication date:  March  2017
Online publication date:  March  2017

Print ISBN: 9781482242515
eBook ISBN: 9781315280172
Adobe ISBN:


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On April 20, 1999, Emergency Medical Service (EMS) providers in Littleton, Colorado responded to Columbine High School after reports of a mass casualty situation. Upon arrival, responders noted an active, violent, ongoing incident, with numerous casualties, an unknown number of heavily-armed assailants whose whereabouts were unknown, fleeing students and staff, and reports of explosions, odors of natural gas, and an activated fire alarm (Mell & Sztajnkrycer, 2004).

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