Spring Tunnels (Niqba’)

The Jerusalem Hills Perspective, Israel

Authored by: Azriel Yechezkel , Amos Frumkin

Underground Aqueducts Handbook

Print publication date:  November  2016
Online publication date:  November  2016

Print ISBN: 9781498748308
eBook ISBN: 9781315368566
Adobe ISBN:


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The first development of water systems in Israel was at Atlit Yam, on Israel's northern shore (Galili and Nir 1993, 267). On this site, the first well was found, dated to the end of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic period (6100–5500 BC). Well drilling continued on the Chalcolithic period, evidenced by a well found in Lahav (Burton and Levy 2012, 138). During the Early Bronze Age, fortified cities rose for the first time, concentrating large number of people. This allowed development of new methods for producing water because of the manpower involved in urban settlements. In Tel Arad, a great unplas-tered reservoir was used to collect runoff water from all over the city (Amiran and Ilan 1996, 106).

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