Historical Development of Qan?ts: Underground Aqueducts in Pakistan

Authored by: Saifullah Khan , Mahmood-Ul-Hasan , Muhammad Ishaque Fani

Underground Aqueducts Handbook

Print publication date:  November  2016
Online publication date:  November  2016

Print ISBN: 9781498748308
eBook ISBN: 9781315368566
Adobe ISBN:


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A qan?t (an Arabic word) or karez (Persian) is a water management system used to provide a reliable supply of water for human settlements and irrigation in hot, arid, and semiarid climates in different parts of the world (Mohyuddin 2012). Qan?ts are also called karez in Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Central Asia, derived from Persian kahan, khettara (Morocco), galeria (Spain), falaj (United Arab Emirates and Oman), kahn (Baloch), or foggara/fughara (North Africa).

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