Wine Fermentation and Production

Authored by: Juan José Rodríguez-Bencomo , M. Ángeles Pozo-Bayón , M. Victoria Moreno-Arribas

Handbook of Plant-Based Fermented Food and Beverage Technology

Print publication date:  May  2012
Online publication date:  May  2012

Print ISBN: 9781439849040
eBook ISBN: 9781439870693
Adobe ISBN:

10.1201/b12055-11

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Abstract

Wine production is a complex process, not only from the microbiological point of view, but also in terms of biochemistry, with the transformation of must into wine by the metabolic activity of yeasts, particularly, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The key metabolic process that occurs is the alcoholic fermentation catabolic pathway, which involves the conversion of the hexoses present in the grape juice into ethanol and carbon dioxide. In addition, other compounds initiate significant changes in the organoleptic properties of wine. In wine, malolactic fermentation takes place after alcoholic fermentation. This second fermentation reduces the acidity and adjusts the sensory profile of the wine, which makes this an indispensable process in the production of many wines, especially red wines. There are also special wines available on the market—all of which have emerged from the winemaking process, such as sparkling wines and biologically aged wines. Both have undergone a long and unique production that is characterized by their development through two main phases; in the case of sparkling wines, there are two processes involving fermentation and an aging period with yeast, and in the case of the biologically aged wines, a biological process that involves yeast oxidative metabolism.

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