Exercise-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation Outcomes and Expectations

Authored by: Carl J. Lavie , Richard V. Milani , Ross A. Arena

Lifestyle Medicine

Print publication date:  March  2013
Online publication date:  March  2013

Print ISBN: 9781439845424
eBook ISBN: 9781315099248
Adobe ISBN:


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Considerable data from both observational studies as well as randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have demonstrated the significant benefits of physical activity, exercise training (ET), and overall cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in both the primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD). 1,2 We and others have published on the marked benefits obtained from formal cardiac rehabilitation and ET (CRET) programs in patients with established CHD, especially after CHD events. 16 However, despite the very clear benefits of formal, supervised outpatient CRET programs, as well as intense efforts to improve referrals to these programs, current statistics continue to demonstrate poor overall referral and participation rates for eligible patients, with dismal participation in rural areas and in patients with lower socioeconomic status, limited levels of higher education, as well as females and elderly patients. 1,2,7

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