Chemical Modifications of Graphene via Covalent Bonding

Authored by: Liang Cui , Dongjiang Yang , Jingquan Liu

Graphene Science Handbook

Print publication date:  April  2016
Online publication date:  April  2016

Print ISBN: 9781466591370
eBook ISBN: 9781466591387
Adobe ISBN:


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Graphene, which consist of a single atom sheet conjugated sp2 carbon atoms, has triggered intensive interest in various areas due to its excellent properties and inexpensive sources (graphite) since its discovery in 2004. However, its hydrophobicity and easy aggregation, which can be changed by chemical modifications, make it hard to process. Covalent binding of molecules to graphene represents an interesting alternative for the development of novel graphene derivatives with a compendium of interfacial interactions. Covalent linking, the most convenient method in terms of solution processing, but certainly not the best method where electronic application is concerned, is stronger than traditional non-covalent linking, such as van der Walls force, hydrogen bonding, and so on. This feature article provides an overview of the strategies currently employed to covalently modify graphene. We focus on the modifications of pure graphene other than graphene oxide as the latter has plenty of functional groups and can easily be modified. The modification methods of graphene and graphene oxide, as well as the applications of functionalized graphene and graphene oxide, are summarized.

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