3D Macroscopic Graphene Assemblies

Authored by: Marcus A. Worsley , Juergen Biener , Michael Stadermann , Theodore F. Baumann

Graphene Science Handbook

Print publication date:  April  2016
Online publication date:  April  2016

Print ISBN: 9781466591370
eBook ISBN: 9781466591387
Adobe ISBN:


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Integration of 2D graphene sheets into 3D macroscale architectures is critical in realizing the full potential of graphene sheets in macroscale devices and applications. Several fabrication strategies for building these architectures have emerged, and they fall into two categories: (1) top-down and (2) bottom-up approaches. Top-down approaches involve synthesis of the graphene and network simultaneously from polymer or gaseous precursors. Techniques such as sol–gel chemistry and chemical vapor deposition growth fall into this category. Bottom-up techniques begin with a graphene precursor such as graphene oxide (GO) sheets and then uses various strategies to assemble them into a network. Chemical and hydrothermal gelation/reduction of GO suspensions falls into this category. This chapter summarizes the various strategies for fabricating these novel structures and shows how they produce graphene architectures with unique properties such as high electrical conductivities, large surface areas, exceptional mechanical properties, a wide range of densities, and more. Owing to these unique properties, incorporation of these novel assemblies in macroscale systems results in enhanced and/or novel performance in a wide range of applications, including energy storage, catalysis, actuators, electronics, and desalination.

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