Congestion and Carbon Emissions

Authored by: Konstantinos V. Katsikopoulos , Ana Paula Bortoleto

Handbook of Human Factors for Automated, Connected, and Intelligent Vehicles

Print publication date:  June  2020
Online publication date:  May  2020

Print ISBN: 9781138035027
eBook ISBN: 9781315269689
Adobe ISBN:


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Automated, connected, and intelligent vehicles (ACIV) are often proposed as a way to reduce congestion, and hence to also reduce carbon emissions. Unless people completely surrendered driving control to ACIV, researchers must understand how driver behavior is affected by vehicle intelligence, connectedness, and automation. The first part of this chapter reviews such work. Vehicle intelligence, such as information about route travel times and parking spot availability, seems to induce driver decisions based on the simple rules of thumb. Vehicle connectedness can be leveraged to decrease congestion if drivers can reason and predict others’ behavior—be they human or automated drivers—and, surprisingly, such skills should not necessarily follow standard game-theoretic rationality. To reach the appropriate level of trust that drivers and passengers should have in vehicle automation, more work remains to be done in terms of design—for example, of the human–machine interface (HMI)—as discussed in other chapters. Related, more studies are needed to investigate moral and social dilemmas that could be induced by vehicle automation. The second part of the chapter considers ACIVs that additionally are environmentally friendly and thus could reduce carbon emissions directly. We discuss to what extent such carbon-emissions-reducing vehicles currently exist, when one takes a life cycle perspective. Additionally, we discuss whether people are ready now to engage in using such vehicles. It seems that being motivated is not enough to undertake a pro-environmental behavior. Rather, providing drivers with clear information is key.

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