Automation Lessons from Other Domains

Authored by: Christopher D. Wickens

Handbook of Human Factors for Automated, Connected, and Intelligent Vehicles

Print publication date:  June  2020
Online publication date:  May  2020

Print ISBN: 9781138035027
eBook ISBN: 9781315269689
Adobe ISBN:


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Introducing automation into ground vehicles can benefit from lessons learned in many other domains, such as aviation and military systems. In this chapter, I first describe human–automation interaction failures that have led to accidents in aviation. I then present and describe seven features of human–automation interaction: (1) the degree of automation and its dependence on stages of human information processing; (2) automation reliability; (3) the kinds of errors that imperfectly reliable automation can lead to; (4) the concept of out-of-the-loop-unfamiliarity (OOTLUF) and its relation to situation awareness; (5) mode complexity; (6) automation transparency; and (7) flexible automation. A third section describes the research contributions, first outlining the strengths and weaknesses of accident analysis, and then focusing on experimental research in two domains: alerting systems and OOTLUF in decision aiding. In a final section, I suggest solutions to human–automation interaction challenges that have been identified in other domains related to flexible automation, transparency, and training.

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