Authored by: Naomi H. McGloin , Mutsuko Endo Hudson , Fumiko Nazikian , Tomomi Kakegawa

Modern Japanese Grammar

Print publication date:  October  2013
Online publication date:  March  2017

Print ISBN: 9780415571999
eBook ISBN: 9780203856628
Adobe ISBN: 9781135151393


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Japanese verbs are grouped into three types, the -ru, -u, and irregular types depending on the conjugational patterns. The plain nonpast form of -ru verbs ends with -iru or -eru. The plain nonpast form of -u verbs ends with -u, -tsu, -ru (… aru, … uru, … oru), -mu, -bu, -nu, -su, -ku, or -gu. However, there are u-verbs such as kaeru ‘to return home,’ hairu ‘to enter,’ hashiru ‘to run,’ and kiru ‘to cut,’ which end with -iru or -eru.

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