Register and style

Authored by: Naomi H. McGloin , Mutsuko Endo Hudson , Fumiko Nazikian , Tomomi Kakegawa

Modern Japanese Grammar

Print publication date:  October  2013
Online publication date:  March  2017

Print ISBN: 9780415571999
eBook ISBN: 9780203856628
Adobe ISBN: 9781135151393


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Typically, spoken discourse is spontaneous, fragmented and relatively unplanned, while written discourse is planned. Spoken discourse is characterized by frequent occurrences of ①fillers (nanka, anoo, eeto, ‘like’, ‘um’, ‘er’ etc.), ②sentence-/clause- final particles (ne, yo, sa, etc.), ③repetitions, ④repairs, ④omission of particles like wa (for topic) and o (for direct object), ⑤sentence fragments, ⑤postposing, etc.

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