Authored by: Naomi H. McGloin , Mutsuko Endo Hudson , Fumiko Nazikian , Tomomi Kakegawa

Modern Japanese Grammar

Print publication date:  October  2013
Online publication date:  March  2017

Print ISBN: 9780415571999
eBook ISBN: 9780203856628
Adobe ISBN: 9781135151393


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One’s spontaneous feelings of surprise can be communicated by expressions including the following. These expressions are in the past tense form of a verb, even though what is being expressed is a current state. Also, when one is in the state of surprise, one often forgets the consideration of formality; therefore the plain form is used more often than the polite form.

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