Long-Term Orientation

Reviewing the Past and Identifying Future Opportunities for Family Business Research

Authored by: Jeffrey A. Chandler , Miles A. Zachary , Keith H. Brigham , G. Tyge Payne

The Routledge Companion to Family Business

Print publication date:  September  2016
Online publication date:  September  2016

Print ISBN: 9781138919112
eBook ISBN: 9781315688053
Adobe ISBN: 9781317419990


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Time is inherent in the decisions and actions of organizations and, therefore, crucial to an organization’s success and longevity (Bluedorn & Denhardt, 1988). Conceptions of time are often manifested as a cultural artifact (Gurvitch, 1964), a resource (Doob, 1971, McGrath & Rotchford, 1983), or an event horizon (Das, 1986), which collectively influence how managers frame decisions (e.g., Agor, 1986; Burke & Miller, 1999; Dane & Pratt, 2007; De Dreu, 2003) and subsequent outcomes (e.g., Balkundi, & Harrison, 2006; Harrison, Price, Gavin, & Florey, 2002). For instance, employees’ perceptions regarding the length of a deadline have been demonstrated to affect the pace of work (e.g., Kelly & McGrath, 1985), productivity (e.g., Andrews & Farris, 1972), and job performance (e.g., Peters, O’Connor, Pooyon, & Quick, 1984). Also, product or market entry decisions and outcomes are influenced by timing (Zachary, Gianiodis, Payne, & Markman, 2015) and based both on organizational and environmental time pressures (Mitchell, 1989; Perez-Nordtvedt, Payne, Short, and Kedia, 2008).

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