The Jin and the Sixteen States

Authored by: Kawamoto Yoshiaki , Yoon-rim Kim

Routledge Handbook of Imperial Chinese History

Print publication date:  October  2018
Online publication date:  September  2018

Print ISBN: 9781138847286
eBook ISBN: 9781315726878
Adobe ISBN:


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In the last years of the Eastern Han dynasty, two enormous problems arose. The first problem was the stratification of the populace. At the top was the bureaucracy dominated by hereditary aristocrats, followed by magnate lineages (haozu 豪族) and then by village commoners. In consequence, the Han imperial system, where a single sovereign reigned over the entire population, was weakened while economic inequality became increasingly evident.

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