Failure of a Revolution

The Military, Secular Intelligentsia and Religion in Egypt’s Pseudo-Secular State

Authored by: Abou El Fadl Khaled

Routledge Handbook of the Arab Spring

Print publication date:  December  2014
Online publication date:  December  2014

Print ISBN: 9780415523912
eBook ISBN: 9781315763026
Adobe ISBN: 9781317650041


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Since the age of colonialism, legitimacy has become an elastic word that is exploited to invent and repress history; to construct and deconstruct identity; and to uphold and deny rights. Legitimacy is possessed by no one but claimed by everyone, and it is enforced only through sheer power. In the absence of a transparent and accountable civil process, those who believe that they are the de facto possessors of legitimacy massacre in cold blood, torture, maim and commit every possible offense in the name of defending the existing legitimacy.

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