When loss rewards

The near-miss effect in slot-machine gambling

Authored by: Gordon R. Foxall , Valdimar Sigurdsson

The Routledge Companion to Consumer Behavior Analysis

Print publication date:  September  2015
Online publication date:  August  2015

Print ISBN: 9780415729925
eBook ISBN: 9781315850696
Adobe ISBN: 9781317913467


 Download Chapter



It is well established that slot-machine gamblers whose scores closely resemble a winning combination (but which objectively are losses) often seem encouraged thereby to continue playing (Côté et al., 2003; Griffiths, 1994; Reid, 1986; Skinner, 1953). Attempts to explain this “near-miss effect” often implicate neural functioning (e.g., Qi et al., 2011). After all, the same brain regions are recruited in the case of near-misses as are apparent for wins (notably the reward circuits of the midbrain dopaminergic system and the orbitofrontal cortex of the forebrain which they innervate), while losing activates separate neural areas (Chase & Clark, 2010; Habib & Dixon, 2010). This is consistent with a corpus of research findings indicating that pathological gambling (PG) recruits similar neuronal systems as substance addiction.

Search for more...
Back to top

Use of cookies on this website

We are using cookies to provide statistics that help us give you the best experience of our site. You can find out more in our Privacy Policy. By continuing to use the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.